Since the design of magnificent large-scale clocks in the Middle Ages, watch technicians have continued to make every effort to reduce the mechanical structure of the clock to make it more compact. In 1929, Jaeger-LeCoultre took an important first step in this field, launching the world’s smallest movement at the time, the & mdash; & mdash; 101 movement (Figure 1). So far, this movement is still not available. Beyond, still maintains the world record for the smallest movement, and is still being produced and assembled. The movement has a total of 74 parts (currently 96 parts), 14 mm in length, 4.8 mm in width, 3.4 mm in thickness, and a volume of only 0.28 square millimeters. The volume of a standard thimble is about 1 square millimeter. You can see it. In the following years, the watchmaker challenged a new goal: to make the world’s thinnest movement! In 1955, Vacheron Constantin launched the ultra-thin movement, numbered 1003 (Figure 2), produced by Jaeger-LeCoultre, and launched a engraved version in 2010. However, the slimline re-launch this time is completely Produced by Vacheron Constantin, with a thickness of only 1.64 mm, it is the world’s thinnest manually wound movement. The world’s thinnest self-winding movement is the 12P movement (Picture 3) produced by Piaget in 1957. It is only 2.3 mm thick and has been included in the Guinness des Records. , Its gear train is almost thinner than hair.
(Jeger-LeCoultre) The Jaeger-LeCoultre 101 movement is not only the smallest movement in the world, but also the lightest movement: it weighs less than 1 gram. And Richard Mille’s new model RM 027 (Figure 4) is the world’s lightest finished mechanical watch: including the strap, its total weight is less than 20 grams. The tourbillon movement is made of titanium and patented alloy LITAL & reg; which is a lithium alloy containing aluminum, copper, magnesium and zirconium, which is mainly used in the aerospace field. It is the use of high-tech lightweight materials that make large movements (30.2 X 28.8 X 7 mm) as light as wool and weigh only 3.83 grams. The case is made of composite carbon, which is light and sturdy, so the entire watch (excluding the strap) weighs only 13 grams, making the wearer feel light and comfortable!
The Panerai (Panerai) Radiomir & ldquo; Egyptienne & rdquo; watch (Figure 5), designed for the Egyptian navy soldiers in the 1950s, is undoubtedly the most magnificent round watch in history. In 2009, the brand launched a re-engraved style with a matte titanium case with a diameter of 60 mm, which is equivalent to the diameter of a 33 cl can, and only a strong and powerful wrist can match it! Regardless of the timeless classic watch, looking at the ‘alien’ models that have emerged in recent years, we should firstly introduce the DeWitt WX-1 concept watch grandly launched by DeWitt in 2008 (Figure 6), its inspiration From the post-modern literary genre ‘Steampunk’ (Steampunk), the watch can be opened like a drawer. When opened, the watch has a length of 15 cm and a width of 4.9 cm. It is just like a modernist art treasure, also known by experts The ‘talking piece’ (artwork showing my own style) was very popular as soon as it was launched.
The most complicated function of clocks is the Patek Philippe Calibre 89 movement (Figure 7). This movement displays 33 different time-related functions with 24 hands, including Easter date display (Easter day is different every year), sunrise and sunset display, and leap year display. This movement is carried in a pocket watch with a diameter of 9 cm, a thickness of 4 cm, and a weight of 1.1 kg. Only four pocket watches are produced, which is precious and luxurious. The watch with the most complete display function should be the Hybris Mechanica & agrave; Grande Sonnerie watch (Figure 8) by Jaeger-LeCoultre (Figure 8). This watch was launched in 2009. One of the masterpieces of timing. The Jaeger-LeCoultre Trilogy masterpiece brings together 55 complications, and this watch already has 26 complications. Its Jaeger-LeCoultre 182 floating tourbillon movement, consisting of more than 1,300 parts, can provide loud or crisp ringtones at the same time; it also has a flyback perpetual calendar display with time equation. From now until 2014, Jaeger-LeCoultre plans to launch 30 sets of trilogy masterpieces, each set for sale in a 1-ton safe.
With its Hydro Challenger watch (Figure 9), Bell & Ross has become the world record holder for watch depth. This watch is filled with a transparent fluorinated oil called Hydroil & reg; which can withstand an atmospheric pressure of 1110 bar, which is 1110 kg per square centimeter. It was included in the Guinness Book in 1997. However, this feat, which can only be achieved in the hyperbaric chamber, is overshadowed by Rolex’s pioneering pioneering masterpiece. It was Rolex who invented the ‘screw-in’ crown and officially launched the first waterproof watch in 1926. Later, Rolex named this flagship series Oyster. In 1960, Rolex was determined to break the watch’s water-resistant depth record, specially created an oyster watch (Figure 10), and installed it on the deep-sea observation submersible Trieste d & rsquo; Auguste Piccard, and dived with it. The Mariana Trench reaching 10,916 meters. The watch withstood up to one ton per square centimeter of pressure, and eventually returned to the surface intact, making the industry amazing.
From a mechanical point of view, the watch structure consists of three major parts: the power mechanism (spring barrel), the transmission mechanism (gear train) and the speed regulation mechanism (escapement). Finding the best solution for each of these institutions is exactly what the watch technicians will always deserve. For example, the latest research and development achievements in the field of escapement (composed of balance wheel, escapement fork and escape wheel) have once again greatly improved the accuracy of watches. Most existing escapement vibration frequencies are 3 Hz or 4 Hz, or even 5 Hz, which is 36,000 times per hour. Breguet is unique, making its Type XXII model (Figure 11) a vibrating frequency of up to 10 Hz, or 72,000 times per hour. The second hand advances one division every 20th of a second (almost invisible to the naked eye), and is the smallest unit of time that a mechanical movement can measure so far. TAG Heuer has taken a different approach and set about improving friction and energy consumption. The newly introduced Pendulum concept table (Figure 12) replaces traditional hairsprings with four magnets. The magnetic field formed by the magnets converts linear power into curved power of the balance wheel swing, which is unique! However, the problem that remains to be solved is the effect of temperature on magnets.